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Floating-point multiplier

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Circuit Description

This applet demonstrates a floating-point multiplier. The number representation is based on the same principles as the single-precision and double-precision formats defined by the the IEEE 754 standard. However, the multiplier shown here only uses a four-bit normalized mantissa and a three-bit exponent (with offset 3), without sign-bits. That is, a number is represented as

value = 2(exponent-3) * (1.0 + mantissa * 2-4)

For details and a few examples, please read the short introduction to the floating-point representation. The following table summarizes the number of bits used here and in the single- and double-precision standard representations:

  number of bits              total  sign  exponent (offset)  mantissa
  this applet                     7     0         3        3         4
  IEEE-754 single-precision      32     1         8      127        23
  IEEE-754 double-precision      64     1        11     1023        52

Click or shift+click the input switches to increment or decrement the input values for the A and B exponents and mantissae, and watch the resulting output value. For example, the initial values for both numbers are exponent=100b and mantissa=1000b, which corresponds to a value of

A = B = 2(4-3)*(1.0 + 8/16) = 2*1.5 = 3

Not surprisingly, the resulting multiplier output is exp=110b and mantissa=0010b, or

R = 2(6-3)*(1.0 + 2/16) = 8*1.125 = 9

You can open new editor windows for all subcomponents (popup-menu, select 'edit') to study the actual gate-level implmentation of the multiplier. A real floating-point multiplier just uses a much larger array (e.g. 23*23 for single-precision and 52*52 for double-precision), but the princile stays the same. Also, note that the muliplication of signed-numbers poses no problem; the sign bit is just the XOR or the two operand sign bits.

Print version | Run this demo in the Hades editor (via Java WebStart)
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Impressum http://tams.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/applets/hades/webdemos/95-dpi/float-multiplier/multiplier.html